A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic, solid material comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionicsic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science.
For convenience, ceramic products are usually divided into four main types; these are shown below with some examples:
- Structural, including bricks, pipes, floorand roof tiles
- Refractories, such as kilnlinings, gas fire radiants, steeland glass making crucibles
- Whitewares, including tableware, cookware, wall tiles, pottery products and sanitary ware
- Technical, also known as engineering, advanced, special, and fine ceramics. Such items include:
2)Ceramics made with clay
Frequently, the raw materials of modern ceramics do not include clays. Those that do are classified as follows:
- Earthenware, fired at lower temperatures than other types
- Stoneware, vitreousor semi-vitreous
- Porcelain, which contains a high content of kaolin
- Bone china
3)Classification of technical ceramics
Technical ceramics can also be classified into three distinct material categories:
- Oxides: alumina, beryllia, ceria, zirconia
- Nonoxides: carbide, boride, nitride, silicide
- Composite materials: particulate reinforced, fiber reinforced, combinations of oxidesand nonoxides.
Each one of these classes can develop unique material properties because ceramics tend to be crystalline.